PSY 352 Week 5 Quiz

PSY 352 Week 5 Quiz

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PSY 352 Week 5 Quiz
 
Question 1
Perea, Acha, &Carreiras (2009) investigated the reading comprehension of text messages and found that:
 
orthographically based text messages were comprehended just as effectively as normal text.
phonetically based text messages were comprehended just as effectively as normal text.
both orthographically- and phonetically based text messages were comprehended just as effectively as normal text.
neither orthographically- nor phonetically based text messages were comprehended just as effectively as normal text. 
 
 
Question 2
Which of these is NOT one of the stages of language production?
 
planning
assembly
self-monitoring
conceptualization
 
 
Question 3
“Greg had such a bad night out at the bar that he decided to buy a new cue stick.” The inference that Greg had a bad night because he shot billiards poorly is a ________. This inferred fact ________ represented as prominently as if it had actually been presented.
 
a bridging inference; would not be
an elaborative inference; would not be
a bridging inference; would be
an elaborative inference; would be
 
 Question 4
Place of articulation is to manner of articulation as ________ is to ________.
 
release; vibration
vocal cords; air flow
interrupt; stop
where; how
 
Question 5
All of the following statements are true about “motherese” EXCEPT:
 
it tends to be higher pitched than normal speech.
 it is found across many different languages.
it features exaggerated ups and downs in pitch.
it tends to be faster than normal speech.
 
 Question 6
Which of these is NOT one of the levels of discourse representation?
 
situation model
surface code
text base
analog code
 
Question 7
When children lie and deceive their parents to keep out of trouble, they are using which design feature of language?
 
Arbitrariness
specialization  
displacement
prevarication
 
Question 8
Which of the statements about the mental lexicon and lexical access is true?
 
Only one meaning of an ambiguous word (e.g., bank) is activated upon word presentation.
Low-frequency words are more quickly accessed than are high-frequency words.
For bilinguals, a given concept has only one entry in the mental lexicon.
The mental lexicon is part of semantic memory.
 
Question 9
Chomsky’s approach to how we engage in language is termed:
transformational grammar.
constraint-based grammar.
phonetic grammar.
syntactic based grammar.
 
Question 10
You are taking a test about language. Your ability to think about language in order to complete the test is an example of which design feature?
 
productivity
arbitrariness
reflectiveness
semanticity
 
Question 11
About how many phonemes make up American English?
10
25
45
105
 
Question 12
The most impressive evidence that animals are indeed capable of learning language comes from the research done with:
Kanzi.
Alex.
Rockie.
Washoe.
 
Question 13
The story grammar approach basically applies which notion (from sentence comprehension) to the comprehension of stories and larger units of discourse?
 
case grammar
parsing
morphology
constraint-based grammar
 
 
Question 14
What is parsing?
 
the process of accessing word meaning 
the process of converting syntax into semantics
 the process of identifying the component elements of a sentence
the process of mapping the look of a word onto the sound of a word
 
 Question 15
Anaphors are more likely to result in the successful retrieval of an appropriate antecedent when:
the antecedent has occurred recently.
the antecedent received first mention.
both factors mentioned in a and b are important.
neither factor mentioned in a and b are important.
 
Question 16
______ represents a phonetic difference (but not a phonemic difference).
 
The “g” in dog and the “g” in log
The “d” in dog and the “l” in log
The “t” in pit and the “th” in with
The “p” in pit and the “s” in sit
 
 
Question 17
 
In their research with Kanzi and other bonobo chimps, Savage-Rumbaugh and colleagues have investigated whether language can be acquired in the form of:
American Sign Language.
Braille.
motioning.
lexigrams.
 
 
Question 18
High frequency words like robin receive _____ fixation as/than low-frequency words like penguin.
 
the same amount of
more
less
 
 Question 19
Which of these describes the bottom-up processes in reading?
Reading is aided by expectations.
Reading is aided by context.
Reading is aided by other words.
Reading requires analysis of the printed symbols.
 
Question 20
Dyslexics have particular trouble:
 
reading words in the correct order.
recognizing words when they hear them.
mapping the look of a word onto its sound.
 performing normally on standard measures of intelligence.
 
Question 21
Rayner, White, Johnson, and Liversedge (2006) examined fixation times for words that were normal or jumbled.  They found that:
 
words with the internal letters transposed had the longest fixation times.
words with the initial letter transposed had the longest fixation times. 
fixation times for normal words and for words with ending letters transposed were the same.
there was no difference between words with internal, ending, or beginning letters transposed.
 
Question 22
The concept of a ________ comes from Bartlett's classic research on story recall.
 story grammar
 proposition
 script
 schema
 
Question 23
Gricean maxims in language indicate that our conversational partners should conform to all of the following 
EXCEPT:
avoidance of ambiguity.
relevance.
grammatical correctness.
truthfulness.
 
Question 24
All of the following statements are true about “motherese” EXCEPT:
 
it tends to be higher pitched than normal speech.
it is found across many different languages.
it features exaggerated ups and downs in pitch.
it tends to be faster than normal speech.
 
 Question 25
Which of these is NOT an assumption of the construction-integration model of text comprehension?
 
We encode ideas from texts as propositions.
Ideas from a text, once encoded, are organized hierarchically.
We use working memory to construct the text representation.
The more propositions in a text, the more easily we comprehend it.
 
Question 26
Pinker proposes that in order to “morph” words into different forms (i.e., past tense), we have:
 
one system that is associative; we encode associations between the past and present tense, and use them to retrieve one another.
one system that operates via rules; we use these rules (e.g., “add an -s to make a plural”) to morph words.
two systems; we use the rule system for exceptions, and the associative system for non-exceptions.
two systems; we use the rule system for non-exceptions, and the associative system for exceptions.
 
 Question 27
 
The design feature of language that allows us to communicate ideas that are remote in space and time is:
discreteness.
specialization.
productivity.
displacement.
 
Question 28
Luo, Johnson, & Gallo (1998) tested whether “pseudohomophones” (e.g., “brane”) would show effects of semantic relatedness. In other words, would the letter string “brane” prime a related concept (e.g., neuron)? 
What did they find?
 
That access to the mental lexicon was most probably direct.
Pseudohomophones primed only the actual word (e.g., “brain,” in this example).
Pseudohomophones did not prime related concepts.
Pseudohomophones did prime related concepts.
 
Question 29
The difficulty in processing garden-path sentences:
confirms that the default structure in English syntax tends to be subject-object-verb.
is evidence against the garden-path approach.
is evident in reading times, but not in eye movements.
applies to blind readers of Braille.
 

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