# HLT 362V Week 5 Assignment Workbook Exercise 14 and 19, 23 24, 29 and 35 NEW

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Exercise # 14: Understanding Simple Linear Regression

According to the study narrative and Figure 1 in the Flannigan et al. (2014) study, does the APLS UK formulae under- or overestimate the weight of children younger than 1 year of age? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Using the values a = 3.161 and b = 0.502 with the novel formula in Figure 1, what is the predicted weight in kilograms (kg) for a child at 9 months of age? Show your calculations.

Using the values a = 3.161 and b = 0.502 with the novel formula in Figure 1, what is the predicted weight in kilograms for a child at 2 months of age? Show your calculations.

In Figure 2, the formula for calculating y (weight in kg) is Weight in kg = (0.176 × age in months) + 7.241. Identify the y intercept and the slope in this formula.

Using the values a = 7.241 and b = 0.176 with the novel formula in Figure 2, what is the predicted weight in kilograms for a child 3 years of age? Show your calculations.

Using the values a = 7.241 and b = 0.176 with the novel formula in Figure 2, what is the predicted weight in kilograms for a child 5 years of age? Show your calculations.

In Figure 3, some of the actual mean weights represented by the blue line with squares are above the dotted straight line for the novel formula, but others are below the straight line. Is this an expected finding? Provide a rationale for your answer.

In Figure 3, the novel formula is (Weight in kilograms = (0.331 × Age in months) – 6.868. What is the predicted weight in kilograms for a child 10 years old? Show your calculations.

Was the sample size of this study adequate for conducting simple linear regression? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Describe one potential clinical advantage and one potential clinical problem with using the three novel formulas presented in Figures 1, 2, and 3 in a PICU setting.

Exercise # 19: Understanding Pearson Chi-Square

According to the relevant study results section of the Darling-Fisher et al. (2014) study, what categories are reported to be statistically significant?

What level of measurement is appropriate for calculating the χ2 statistic? Give two exam¬ples from Table 2 of demographic variables measured at the level appropriate for χ2.

What is the χ2 for U.S. practice region? Is the χ2 value statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer. X2= 29.68; p= <.00

What is the df for provider type? Provide a rationale for why the df for provider type pre¬sented in Table 2 is correct.

Is there a statistically significant difference for practice setting between the Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services (RAAPS) users and nonusers? Provide a rationale for your answer.

State the null hypothesis for provider age in years for RAAPS users and RAAPS nonusers.

Should the null hypothesis for provider age in years developed for Question 6 be accepted or rejected? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Describe at least one clinical advantage and one clinical challenge of using RAAPS as described by Darling-Fisher et al. (2014).

How many null hypotheses are rejected in the Darling-Fisher et al. (2014) study for the results presented in Table 2? Provide a rationale for your answer.

A statistically significant difference is present between RAAPS users and RAAPS nonusers for U.S. practice region, χ2 = 29.68. Does the χ2 result provide the location of the difference? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Exercise # 23

What is the r value for the relationship between Hamstring strength index 60Â°/s and the Shuttle run test? Is this r value significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Consider r = 1.00 and r = -1.00. Which r value is stronger? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Describe the direction of the relationship between the Hamstring strength index 60Â°/s and the Shuttle run test.

Without using numbers, describe the relationship between the Hamstring strength index 120Â°/s and the Triple hop index.

Which variable has the weakest relationship with the Quadriceps strength index 120Â°/s? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Which of the following sets of variables has the strongest relationship?

a. Hamstring strength index 120Â°/s and the Hop index

b. Quadriceps strength index 60Â°/s and the Carioca test

c. Quadriceps strength index 120Â°/s and the Side step test

d. Quadriceps strength index 60Â°/s and the Triple hop index

In Table 5, two r values are reported as r = -0.498 and r = -0.528.

Describe each r value in words, indicating which would be more statistically significant, and provide a rationale for your answer.

The researchers stated that the study showed a positive, significant correlation between Quadriceps strength indices and pre- and postoperative functional stability. Considering the data presented in the Table 5, do you agree with their statement? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The researchers stated that no significant relationship could be described between Hamstring strength indices 60Â°/s and functional stability. Given the data in Table 5, explain why not.

Consider the relationship reported for the Quadriceps strength index 120Â°/s and the Hop index (r = 0.744**, p = 0.000 ). What do these r and p values indicate related to statistical significance and clinical importance?

Exercise # 24

What is the r value listed for the relationship between variables 4 and 9?

Describe the correlation r = -0.32** using words. Is this a statistically significant correlation? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Calculate the percentage of variance explained for r = 0.53. Is this correlation clinically important? Provide a rationale for your answer.

According to Table 2, r = 0.15 is listed as the correlation between which two items? Describe this relationship. What is the effect size for this relationship, and what size sample would be needed to detect this relationship in future studies?

Calculate the percentage of variance explained for r = 0.15. Describe the clinical importance of this relationship.

Which two variables in Table 2, have the weakest correlation, or r value? Which relationship is the closest to this r value? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Is the correlation between LOT-R Total scores and Avoidance-Distraction coping style statistically significant? Is this relationship relevant to practice? Provide rationales for your answers.

Is the correlation between variables 9 and 4 significant? Is this correlation relevant to practice? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Consider two values, r = 0.08 and r = -0.58. Describe them in relationship to each other. Describe the clinical importance of both r values.

Examine the Pearson r values for LOT-R Total, which measured Optimism with the Task and Emotion Coping Styles. What do these results indicate? How might you use this information in your practice?

BONUS QUESTION

One of the study goals was to examine the relationship between optimism and psychopathology. Using the data in Table 2, formulate an opinion regarding the overall correlation between optimism and psychopathology. Provide a rationale for your answer.

Exercise # 29: Calculating Simple Linear Regression

If you have access to SPSS, compute the Shapiro-Wilk test of normality for the variable age (as demonstrated in Exercise 26). If you do not have access to SPSS, plot the frequency distributions by hand. What do the results indicate?

State the null hypothesis where age at enrollment is used to predict the time for comple¬tion of an RN to BSN program.

What is b as computed by hand (or using SPSS)?

What is a as computed by hand (or using SPSS)?

Write the new regression equation.

How would you characterize the magnitude of the obtained R2 value? Provide a rationale for your answer.

How much variance in months to RN to BSN program completion is explained by knowing the student’s enrollment age?

What was the correlation between the actual y values and the predicted y values using the new regression equation in the example?

Write your interpretation of the results as you would in an APA-formatted journal.

Given the results of your analyses, would you use the calculated regression equation to predict future students’ program completion time by using enrollment age as x? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Exercise # 35: Calculating Pearson Chi-Square

Do the example data in Table 35-2 meet the assumptions for the Pearson χ2 test? Provide a rationale for your answer.

2. Compute the χ2 test. What is the χ2 value? 11.931

Is the χ2 significant at α =0.05? Specify how you arrived at your answer.

If using SPSS, what is the exact likelihood of obtaining the χ2 value at least as extreme as or as close to the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true?

Using the numbers in the contingency table, calculate the percentage of antibiotic users who tested positive for candiduria.

Using the numbers in the contingency table, calculate the percentage of non-antibiotic users who tested negative for candiduria.

Using the numbers in the contingency table, calculate the percentage of veterans with candiduria who had a history of antibiotic use.

Using the numbers in the contingency table, calculate the percentage of veterans with candiduria who had no history of antibiotic use.

Write your interpretation of the results as you would in an APA-formatted journal.

Was the sample size adequate to detect differences between the two groups in this example? Provide a rationale for your answer.

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