PSY 352 Week 4 Quiz
Suppose I am planning a wedding with 200 guests, and everyone is going to have a designated place at 22 different dinner tables. Trying to figure out who is going to sit where, and with whom, would be considered:
an arrangement problem.
a divergent problem.
a transformation problem.
a deduction problem.
Our tendency to avoid situations in which many people may be killed while simultaneously being relatively impervious to risky situations in which deaths are more spread out is termed:
Fatal Risk Assessment.
A finding regarding medical expertise indicates that those at an intermediate level of knowledge actually remember more information than do experts. This is termed the:
The belief that after a run of bad luck a change is “due” to occur is called:
an “in” with the Gods.
Castel, McCabe, Roediger, and Heitman (2007) investigated whether experts might be more or less susceptible than novices to the DRM memory illusion. They tested people who were more and less knowledgeable aboutand found that experts were
football; more likely than novices to falsely recall items
football; less likely than novices to falsely recall items
cooking; more likely than novices to falsely recall items
cooking; less likely than novices to falsely recall items
Means-end analysis is basically a fancy term for:
breaking a problem down into subgoals.
applying analogies to solve a problem.
applying algorithms to solve a problem.
working backwards to solve a problem.
Immediate memory capacity is _____ with susceptibility to the belief-bias effect.
Which of these is an example of the sunk cost effect?
Sally is too sick to go out, but decides to attend the play since she paid $40 for the ticket.
Jenny relents to the high-pressure sales person and spends $550 on accessories she doesn’t need.
Despite continued losses, Tony continues to play the ponies at the local track.
Aaron has a decent seat for the basketball game, but decides to upgrade them by buying much better seats from a scalper.
Which of these is NOT a difference between the way experts and novices go about solving a problem?
Experts tend to work backwards; novices tend to work forwards.
Experts can practically bypass working memory in encoding problem information; novices can’t.
Novices tend to pick up on surface features, while experts are better at picking up structural features.
Experts are better at picking up on analogies and using them to solve problems.
According to the dual-process view of reasoning, judgment and decision making, which mode of thinking operates relatively slowly, deliberately and in a controlled manner?
In a valid syllogism:
the conclusion follows from the premises.
the premises are true.
the conclusion is true.
all of the above are true.
Research on the ability to see and apply analogies between the “radiation problem” (tumor problem) and the attack problem indicates that:
people commonly miss the analogy with or without a hint.
people easily see the connection between the problems, and use it to solve the second one.
people rarely see the connection between the problems unless they’re given a hint; then, they usually do make the connection.
analogies only work with complex problems, not simple ones.
Mental set operates at which stage of problem solving?
generation of solutions
The ________ view of inductive reasoning states that inductive reasoning involves special processes and representations that operate in the abstract, outside of any real-life context.
Which of the following is NOT one the three sources of difficulty in solving insight problems according to Kershaw and Ohlsson?